While it is often said that LDL-C causes heart disease, this appears to be a gross oversimplification. To begin with, LDL-C comes in different sizes, ranging from small, dense to large ‘buoyant’ forms. The former are believed to be potentially damaging to artery walls, while the latter not so. Also, there has been increasing interest in the idea that the build-up of plaque on the inside of the arteries is promoted by the process known as inflammation. Some scientists have suggested that inflammation is the key underlying process in the development of ‘atherosclerotic plaque’.